Nephroprotective potential of whey protein concentrate and fennel seed extract against tienilic acid -induced renal dysfunctions in albino rats
The objective of this study was to evaluate the nephroprotective potential of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and methanolic fennel seed extract (FSE) against tienilic acid (a hypotensive drug) -induced renal dysfunctions in albino rats. Sixty rats were divided into six equal groups and treated orally for six weeks as follows: control group; FSE alone (200 mg/ kg/day); WPC alone (0.5 g/kg/day); TA alone (1g/kg/twice a week); TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus FSE (200 mg/kg/day). TA (1g/kg/twice a week) plus WPC (0.5g/kg/day). TA administration significantly increased serum levels of creatinine, urea and potassium while decreased significantly sodium and corticosterone levels. On the other hand, Na+/ K+-ATPase activity and total antioxidant capacity content in kidney tissue were diminished concomitant with a significant rise in the levels of kidney lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. Furthermore, serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels were significantly elevated while serum calcium was unchanged. The treatment with either WPC or FSE to TA–treated animals significantly protected the kidney tissue against the injurious effects of tienilic acid. They effectively ameliorated most of the changes induced by TA towards the normal values of the controls. It could be concluded that the renoprotective effect of these agents might be through the prevention or scavenging of free radicals. This may be attributed to the high content of antioxidant compounds in WPC and fennel extract.