Corrections and Retractions
When errors are identified in published articles, the journal will consider the appropriate action and may consult the editor(s), author(s), and the authors’ institution(s). Errors by the authors may be corrected by a corrigendum and errors by the publisher by an erratum.
If there are errors that significantly affect the conclusions or there is evidence of misconduct, this may require retraction or an expression of concern. JIPBS follows the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) retraction guidelines for such cases.
COPE Retraction Guidelines are available here: https://publicationethics.org/files/cope-retraction-guidelines-v2.pdf